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Several sources indicate that the name "Kim Il-sung" had previously been used by a prominent early leader of the Korean resistance, Kim Kyung-cheon.However, historian Andrei Lankov has argued that this is unlikely to be true.At seventeen Kim had become the youngest member of an underground Marxist organization with fewer than twenty members, led by Hŏ So, who belonged to the South Manchurian Communist Youth Association.The police discovered the group three weeks after it formed in 1929, and jailed Kim for several months.The situation reversed in the 1980s, as a stable South Korea became an economic powerhouse fueled by Japanese and American investment, military aid and internal economic development while North Korea stagnated.Differences emerged between North Korea and the Soviet Union, central among them Kim Il-sung's philosophy of Juche, which focused on Korean patriotism and self-reliance.Despite this, the country received funds, subsidies, and aid from the USSR (and the Eastern Bloc) until the dissolution of the USSR in 1991.The resulting loss of economic aid adversely affected the North's economy.
Under his leadership, North Korea became a workers' state with a publicly owned and planned economy.
Until that time most of my acquaintances had called me by my real name, Song Ju.
It was in later years when I started the armed struggle in east Manchuria that I was called by one name, Kim Il Sung, by my comrades.
It had close political and economic relations with the Soviet Union.
By the 1960s, North Korea enjoyed a relatively high standard of living, outperforming the South, which was riddled with political instability and economic crises.
During this period, North Korea also remained critical of United States imperialism, and it seized the American ship USS Pueblo (AGER-2) in 1968.